How does a 3D printer work

The emergence of printers that allow for printing in a volumetric format has greatly expanded the capabilities of a person in various fields of activity. Now you can create various parts of any complexity and configuration at home. At the same time, polymeric materials are used for work, which can be easily bought in a store or ordered online.

However, the printing process itself is a complex sequence of actions. In order to understand modern technologies and use the device correctly, it is necessary to know its working principle. With this you can see in our article.

A 3D printer, in simple terms, is a device that creates three-dimensional objects by layer-by-layer printing. First, a model is formed in a special program, then it is processed using the so-called G-code generator - it is divided into horizontal layers and converted into a digital code. The latter becomes a command for the printer, where and how to apply the material.

It is a complex structure in which the print head moves only horizontally. As a result of applying the material in several planes at once, a volumetric figure is created. A figure is formed on a special work table, which provides for gluing the polymer and fixing it.

When applying one layer, the surface of the table drops one level lower - exactly 1 layer thick and the print head applies the next layer until the object is completely created.

IMPORTANT! Nowadays, 3D printing has found application in all spheres of human activity: from construction to medicine.

SLA technology

For understanding, several possible options for applying a polymeric material to form a product should be considered. One of such methods is the use of SLA technology:

  1. A polymer or resin is poured into the container, which hardens when exposed to a laser beam.
  2. After turning on the system, the laser begins to move along the carriages.
  3. At certain points of contact with the laser, the polymer becomes harder, its structure changes.
  4. Capacity after passing the layer drops below, forming a frame.

IMPORTANT! This results in clear parts with high strength and quality of the material, but using this technology is too expensive.

SLS technology

This method is based on the use of a laser beam to create a part by layer. A roller with a platform is installed in the center of the equipment. From it serves a special polymer material for forming the workpiece. After applying a thin layer of the laser evenly glues the polymer areas, forming one level. So it takes several cycles until the finished form.

This option is somewhat more complicated in execution, but not inferior in accuracy. The cost is on average lower compared to other versions.

DLP technology

The DLP printing option is a relatively new invention in the field of 3D modeling, but the principle is almost the same as the methods presented above. It should be understood that in DLP printing, a strip with LEDs attached to it instead of a laser setup, as with SLA technology, acts as the main tool. This allows you not only to speed up the process, get excellent quality, but also save on equipment. The presented version is an improved version and occupies a leading position.

EBM technology

Another option used in the field of bulk printing is the development of EBM. The technology involves the use of directional rays from the emitters (electron guns). Due to the high temperature obtained when heated by a stream of rays, the material begins to melt, and then allows you to form a product of various configurations and sizes. The temperature can reach up to 1000 ° C, which allows working even with some metals.

IMPORTANT! The main advantage of this method is high speed and high performance, which is extremely useful for high rates of work and large scale production.

To ensure the interoperability of all systems, it is necessary to properly manage the print parameters and adjust the technique. To regulate the operation of a 3D printer, there are various programs and applications. The main way is to use the settings of the software installed on the computer. With it, you can adjust the following parameters:

  1. The temperature of the nozzle from which the polymer material is supplied for the manufacture of the model.
  2. Desktop temperature for better adhesion of the material to the surface.
  3. The speed and intensity of the polymer feed to the working surface. This parameter also improves the application of layers.
  4. The work of electric motors for the movement of the printing machine.

There are also special programs that use encoding to interact with controllers and control workflow.

How to create models for 3D-pechati

To ensure such a complex process, it is necessary to use special models on which the future product will be built. If you are just starting to master the technology, you should learn to use standard programs and applications. Usually the kit comes with an installation CD with basic equipment and a set of ready-made figures.

You can find the application on the Internet or create a figure online. In this section, you need to be trained to understand the basic procedure. After that, you can try to create your own layout for future details. The program itself converts the file format and sends it to print.

Watch the video: What Is 3D Printing and How Does It Work? Mashable Explains (January 2020).


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