A microphone is an acoustic device that converts sound vibrations. Today there are a huge number of them, which greatly complicates the choice.
In most cases, the word microphone represents the device used by the singers on stage. In fact, such an accessory is used in almost all equipment. With the help of it is the conversion of acoustic vibrations into an electrical signal. The microphone is the first link in recording sounds.
Microphone classification is based on sound processing technology:
- Capacitor. The sound is captured using a flexible membrane (film), which together with a constant electrode in the form of a plate form the lining of the capacitor. Sound vibrations contribute to the change in the capacitance of the condenser, eventually forming an electrical signal. Then it is transmitted to the registrar in the form of an impulse.
- Dynamic. Robust construction based on a membrane with a coil attached to it. They are located at the boundary of the generated magnetic field. The principle of operation is that oscillations arise from the sound on the membrane. Then a voltage appears on the coil, which is subsequently transmitted to the recorder in the form of pulses.
REFERENCE!Capacitor devices must be connected to a power source.
Condenser microphones maintain high fidelity. They respond very well to changes in the timbre of the voice, thereby preserving its individuality. Often used in recording studios. But too loud sound waves affect the quality of the recording. They have a small mass.
Dynamic devices have less sensitivity and volume. That allows you to use them at high sound waves. Ideal for use on stages and well suited for home use. Such equipment has a robust construction and is resistant to adverse conditions.
In addition to sound processing technology, microphones are distinguished by the size of the membrane:
- small membrane;
- medium membrane;
- membranous membranes.
REFERENCE! Recording quality is greatly affected by sensitivity. Recording on an overly sensitive microphone is fraught with the presence of unwanted extraneous sounds. Such devices are suitable for use in specially designed rooms.
There are also acoustic devices with a certain orientation, i.e., sound can be perceived in a limited angular range - for input or output. Distinguish unidirectional and bidirectional. Unidirectional is often used at concerts to protect the speaker from extraneous sounds from the hall. Bidirectional is used to communicate with the interlocutor. If there is no restriction in the angular range, then such a device is non-directional.
To transmit the signal, use cables, for the connection of which they mainly use the following connectors:
- TRS (mini-jack). Connector for transmitting audio signal with a diameter of 3.5 mm.
- USB Universal connector for connecting to computer technology.
- XLR-3. It is used in professional audio equipment. Compared with previous versions, it transmits the highest quality sound signal.
Thanks to the development of technology, acoustic devices can now store certain data and settings. Modern equipment allows you to filter out excess noise, transmit and catch the tiniest acoustic vibrations.
The most expensive types are studio microphones, which are used in the field of show business and the film industry. They are characterized by good sensitivity, as well as the ability to pick up non-standard sound waves, while increasing the volume of quiet ones. Also in the field of show business, stage microphones are used, which are slightly inferior to the studio ones in terms of characteristics, but are cheaper.
There are measuring microphones that are used to pick up various sound vibrations. Such devices are narrow-profile, as a rule, are used in industrial equipment. The smallest type of device are mini microphones, which are used for covert listening.
For telephones, microphones for radio headsets are used. The advantage of this type is the wireless data transmission technology. If it is necessary to capture weak sound vibrations, use microphones (capsules) with a closed design, which are used in headphones, smartphones.
REFERENCE! Hydrophones will help you capture and transmit sound vibrations underwater. These devices are specialized acoustic devices that are installed in sonars, echo sounders, etc.
In an environment with a high noise level, laryngophones are used. A special type of equipment used at production sites, in airplanes, etc. Sound vibrations are transmitted using a sensitive sensor.
When choosing a microphone, you need to decide for what purpose it will be used. To record sound behind the scenes or dubbing, you should choose a capacitor. They are more sensitive and designed for use in rooms without extraneous sounds, unlike dynamic ones, which absorb extraneous sound vibrations much less.
Dear professional models should not be purchased, in the absence of additional equipment for connection and processing. Without proper conditions, the operation of the device will not satisfy the declared characteristics.
In addition to the microphone, additional accessories are needed. Acoustic devices should choose reliable and well-known manufacturers.