It would seem that with the advent of gas in rural homes, stove heating is a thing of the past. But modern rich cottages are increasingly being equipped not only with fireplaces, but also with entire stove complexes. It is stylish, environmentally friendly and fashionable. The crackling of firewood and the game of flame give unprecedented comfort. Accordingly, the problems of maintaining the stove in working condition returned.
The causes of cracks in the furnace
Oven masonry and a layer of plaster on the fireplace tend to crack over time. It is important to distinguish between minor cosmetic defects, then real problems requiring an immediate call of the stove.
- Cracks with the thickness of a hair appear on the seams of the stove at the time of flooding and disappear when it cools. Such defects are absolutely not dangerous and do not require intervention. If you really don’t like their appearance, just cover the walls with tiled tiles and the problem will be fixed.
- Cracks from 1 millimeter, appearing at the seams between the bricks and not disappearing when the furnace cools, indicate an improperly selected mortar for masonry. Various expansion factors of brick and clay cause deformation and cracking.
- Large cracks and displacement of bricks are most often caused by overheating of the stove or improper air circulation in the chimney and furnace. If the “overflow” of the stove is the fault of the owner of the house, then the wrong heat removal, when some sections are heated and others remain a little warm, are the fault of the master stove-maker.
- Closed, broken cracking, intersecting the walls horizontally or vertically at the seams, a sign that the foundation is not all right. Such a problem can affect both new stoves and old ones that have stood for many years. It does not make sense to cover up these crackings; the stove needs to be urgently shifted until it collapses entirely.
Next, we will figure out how to “treat” stove defects in cases where it is necessary.
How to dilute clay to putty stove
Despite the sea of modern technologies for laying stoves, fireplaces, fireplace complexes and all kinds of heating and decorative innovations, stoves are still laid with clay mortar. They repair and plaster it, and fix defects in the masonry. Ready-made clay stove mixes appeared in building materials stores. Unfortunately, it is suitable only for working with fireclay bricks, where ordinary clay will not work. In other cases, to prepare the masonry or coating mixture, you will have to look for clay yourself.
How to make a clay mixture
It is necessary to distinguish between the process of plastering the furnace for whitewashing and the process of closing cracks in masonry joints. Accordingly, the solution will require a different density and composition. The ideal clay for plastering and repair will be the one from which the bricks are made. Unfortunately, they ceased to build bricks on their own a long time ago, preferring to buy them, and therefore the "deposit" will not work.
You should choose non-greasy red clay, if necessary, additionally deplete it with sand. The mixture for sealing cracks in the joints is prepared as follows:
- We take the clay-sand mixture and empirically determine the necessary proportions of the components. To do this, prepare a plasticine solution and roll small balls out of it (no more than 2 mm in diameter).
- We extend the hand with the clay ball forward and drop it to the floor. If the ball does not crack and is not smeared with a blot, then this is an ideal mixture for repairing furnace joints.
- Add finely chopped straw for reinforcement and 1 kg of salt per bucket of the mixture. You can get to work.
The solution for the plastering of the furnace is prepared in a similar way, only its consistency is creamy.
How to coat the oven
Starting repair, warm up the stove a little before work. The procedure for filling cracks in the furnace is as follows:
- remove the entire crumbling layer and all the lime whitewash (clay will not lie on it);
- sprinkle or wet with a brush the repair places, so that dry areas are better connected with the repair solution and do not draw moisture out of it;
- tightly clog the joints with a plastic-like mixture, and plaster the surface with a liquid solution.
You can coat the oven with your hands or use a spatula and a trowel. After the solution dries, additionally coat small cracks.
IMPORTANT! Do not heat the stove until the clay is completely dry and the damp areas disappear!
What other grouting products are there?
There are many different recipes for coating stoves and fireplaces, furnaces and chimneys. None of them can be called the most-most, each is used in different conditions and to solve different problems:
- Tiled stoves are repaired with a mixture of alabaster and chalk, so the seams look more neat. In addition, a different color can be added to such a solution, highlighting or hiding the joints between the tiles.
- Sauna stoves and raw brick stoves are repaired with clay mortar with horse manure. Undigested blades of grass become excellent reinforcement for joints and cracks, and manure makes the plaster more durable and ductile at the same time.
- Mortar and plaster solutions for furnaces in which peat briquettes or coal are burned, and a putty with high heating resistance is required.
As a putty can be used:
- Ready chamotte-clay mixture from a hardware store.
- A solution prepared from sulfur, fat and resin in a ratio of 100: 2: 2. It is heated to a state of syrup, then fine glass is added in the form of a powder so that plasticine is obtained. Such a mixture is used in the repair of tiled stoves, used to putty joints and cracks between tiles.
- A mixture of sifted clay and metal sawdust, potassium permanganate, salt, borax and water in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 0.5: 0.5 and a doughy consistency, ideal for repairing furnaces and joints of cooking surfaces and masonry doors. It does not crack from vibration and overheating.
- Fine wood ash in combination with clay, salt and water is also used to cover cracks in the joints of materials with different thermal conductivity.
- In the repair of fireplace portals, fireside zones and cladding, a mixture of gum and alabaster in a ratio of 1: 4 diluted in a liquid storm is used. After the solution has dried, it is difficult to distinguish it from marble in color and hardness.
How to heat the stove to avoid cracks
As mentioned above, one of the common causes of cracking of masonry is the so-called overflow. This happens when the furnace is not used properly, it is too hot or too hot and cools down. Most prone to this are stoves in country houses, where owners come in winter only occasionally.
But you can melt the stove of a residential building, which works throughout the winter. Smooth heating, ignition at full throttle and with an open blower and damper, as well as the use of the right fuel, guarantee a long service life of the stove and no cracks.