Most modern people cannot imagine their morning without a cup of coffee. And the existing rhythm of life, the eternal rush make you come up with more and more advanced devices that can save as much time and effort as possible for its preparation. So there are new coffee makers and coffee machines.
What are the coffee makers
The selection of coffee makers is colossal. There are both very simple and cost-effective models that have a simple working principle and minimal capabilities, as well as more complex models equipped with a wide variety of functions: a timer, maintaining the temperature regime that allows you to keep coffee hot for a while (from half an hour to 3 hours), fortress regulation, etc.
It is worth paying attention to the amount of coffee that is prepared at a time. As a rule, this information is indicated on the device itself and means the number of cups with a capacity of 100 ml. This will help you choose a coffee maker according to the amount of product you or your family consume.
Types of coffee makers and coffee machines
All coffee makers and coffee machines are designed for one purpose - making coffee. The difference is in the method of extraction from coffee of the components required to obtain the taste and aroma. They differ in the principle of formation of steam pressure. Depending on these indicators, there are different types of coffee makers and coffee machines.
Another name is a steam coffee maker. The model was created back in the 19th century, but so far the constituent structures and the principle of operation have not undergone any special changes. The only innovation - there are electric models with a cord that are plugged into an outlet. Manual ones are still placed on the stove.
Depending on the volume, coffee makers of this type are produced with different capacities - from 450 W to 1 kW. Consist of 3 departments:
- lower water tank made of steel;
- compartments (filter) for ground coffee beans;
- top capacity (coffee pot) for the finished coffee, the material of manufacture is glass, ceramic or steel.
The cooking process takes place in several stages:
- Filtered water is poured into the lower tank. The level is determined by the available mark.
- Ground coffee is placed in the filter, preferably medium ground. Coffee powder does not need to be compacted, it only needs to be slightly leveled.
- A coffee filter is installed above the water tank, and a coffee pot is placed on top. The coffee maker is placed on the stove or plugged into a power outlet.
The principle of operation is reflected in the name of the model. Heated to a boil, the water begins to expand and enters a funnel-shaped tube that creates high pressure. On it, water with the help of the generated steam rises into the filter with ground grains and, passing through it and removing the necessary components from the coffee, is pushed into the coffee pot. The process of pushing its appearance resembles a geyser.
The device turns off manually. A sound similar to hissing will tell you about the readiness of coffee and the water that ended in the tank.
Attention! The advantage of a geyser coffee maker is the ability to regulate water heating. The slower it is, the richer the drink.
In this model, the compartment for ground coffee is a horn (holder). A feature of such a coffee maker is the need for tightly compacting fine-ground coffee powder with a special pestle.
The cooking process proceeds under high pressure steam generated during boiling water. No wonder the other name of the device is espresso (from Italian - under pressure).
Steam is generated in two ways, depending on the type of coffee machine:
- Steam. Steam occurs when water is heated to a boiling point of 100 ° C, and under the influence of a pressure of 4 bar opens a valve between the water tank and the horn. Hot steam passes through the coffee and, extracting coffee substances from it, enters the coffee pot in its finished form. It takes about 3-5 minutes to cook.
- Pump action. Steam is obtained by heating water with an electromagnetic pump to a temperature of 95 degrees. The pressure in this unit is 15 bar, so cooking takes very little time - about 30 seconds, and the consumption of raw materials is reduced. Coffee lovers know that the optimal temperature for cooking is from 92 to 95 ° C. Therefore, its quality will be higher than in the steam model.
In the carob coffee makers, a “cream” is formed on the coffee - a soft and aromatic foam, appreciated by many gourmets.
Reference! Some horn coffee makers are equipped with a cappuccino machine - a nozzle for collecting and whipping milk, which, in addition to espresso, makes cappuccino, latte.
Other names - filtration, americano. They are in great demand because of their low cost and ease of use.
The device consists of 2 containers: for cold water and a finished drink, between which there is a strainer with coarse grains. The filter can be paper (disposable), nylon (enough for about 60 cups), metal or "gold" (with a titanium coating that does not require replacement).
Water, having heated from the heating element to almost 100 ° C, expands and goes into a state of steam, which passes through the exhaust pipes to the upper part of the apparatus. There the steam condenses and in the form of drops of condensate drips through a special hole on the filter with coffee, and then passes through it to the coffee pot. In this case, part of the temperature is lost, reaching approximately 90-97 ° C (ideal temperature conditions for americano). Of the shortcomings - the lack of foam.
In more expensive models there are additional functions:
- the coffee pot is located on a heater that can keep coffee hot for 3 hours;
- there is a shutter with an anti-drip function that protects the stove from getting product residues on it when the cup is removed from the coffee maker;
- the possibility of stopping the operation of the apparatus at any stage of preparation.
Interesting! Coffee is tastier and stronger in a drip coffee maker with the least power.
In this model, instead of a filter or a compartment for ground beans, special capsules with tamped coffee powder inside are used. So that coffee does not oxidize, does not lose its taste and does not deteriorate, the capsules are sealed and filled with an inert gas. During cooking, they are pierced from 3 sides with a special device.
First, a powerful incoming air stream mixes the contents of the capsule. Then heated water passes through them under pressure. The resulting coffee is poured into a cup. The used capsule is discarded.
Of the pros - there is no need to calculate the desired portion of the loaded coffee, to clean the filter from the old coffee mass. Of the minuses - in some devices you can use only capsules of the company - the manufacturer of the coffee maker.
Attention! When choosing a capsule model, pay attention to the volume level of the noise it produces.
Combines 2 types of coffee makers:
- carob, with espresso;
- drip, for fans of americano.
With such a device, it is worth considering that for these drinks grains of different grinding are needed (fine - for espresso, large - for americano).
When choosing, you need to pay attention to power. It is desirable that it be at least 1-1.7 kW. Then a pressure of 15 bar will occur.
It is envisaged that part of the work must be done manually before brewing. The device does not grind coffee beans on its own, it must be filled in the already grinded form. Then you need to put coffee in the filter, properly tamp. This species may include, for example, a carob model.
From the pros, it can be noted that depending on which coffee you prefer (strong, not very strong), it is possible to determine the required amount of raw materials and the resulting volume of the drink yourself.
Virtually no human involvement in the coffee preparation process. The device, also called a combine or coffee machine, independently:
- Grinds coffee beans. They are laid in the compartment provided for this, where they are ground according to the settings that are set. The ground product enters the pressing department, in which it is pressed into a soluble tablet and moistened.
- Heats the water to the required temperature. Under pressure, it passes through a compressed powder and fills the cup with the finished product.
- Self-cleaning. The remaining waste is disposed of in a special container, after which it is flushed.
It takes only 30 to 40 seconds to prepare 1 cup of coffee from the moment the beans are laid before pouring into the cup. The big plus is that, due to grinding, caffeine and essential oils are completely saved in the finished coffee immediately before preparation. Of the minuses - high cost.
Advice! It is undesirable to use flavored coffee in automatic machines - it leaves a smell that is difficult to eliminate for a long time.
Devices in which coffee is brewed under pressure created by manual muscular strength. These include:
- French press (French press). It consists of a narrow cylinder, heat-resistant glass and a piston connected to a mesh filter made of metal. Ground coffee beans are poured onto the bottom of the cylinder, hot water is poured, and the lid is closed. The piston is in good condition. After the coffee is infused (after 5-7 minutes), the piston drops down, pressing the grounds and passing the finished drink through the filter.
- Aeropress. The principle of operation is the same, with the only difference being that the filter is made of paper, is disposable. It is inserted into the mesh cover located at the bottom of the glass cylinder; after completion of the brewing procedure, it is thrown out.
- Handpresso (from the English word hand - "hand"). Miniature model that fits in one hand. The piston pump located inside pumps compressed air, creating a pressure of 9 bar. As soon as the pressure gauge needle reaches the green mark, ground coffee is poured into the coffee maker, hot water is poured, and the filter cover is closed. The finished drink is poured into the cup at the touch of a button.
The advantage of manual coffee makers is the small size that allows you to take them with you on the road, to the country, on any trip. Their functioning does not require electricity.
What are the coffee machines for the home
Coffee makers for the home are:
- electric, working when connected to the network;
- for making coffee on the stove - gas or induction.
To the above models, powered by electricity, you can add an electric turret. Coffee is prepared in it, as on a stove, but instead of a stove, a special food stand is used here. The shutdown is not automatic, after completing the brewing process, the device must be turned off independently.
Coffee makers for stove
Of the types of coffee makers discussed above, this includes the geyser model (if it is not electric), in which coffee is prepared using a heat source - a gas or induction stove. In addition, there are well-known from time immemorial cezva (cezve), Turk, dalla.
Cezva is a vessel made of forged copper, steel, aluminum, brass or ceramics, the inner surface of which is coated with food tin in order to avoid the ingestion of substances hazardous to human health released during the heating of copper and brass. It has a wide base and a narrow throat, a long, most often made of hard wood, handle.
Most coffee lovers consider Turku to be the same cezve, without distinguishing between them. According to one version, the difficult name could not take root in Russia, and since the most famous was Turkish coffee, the vessel was called the Turk. However, some experts believe that a difference still exists: the Turks have a wider and shorter neck, having the shape of a funnel.
Dalla is widely used in the countries of Saudi Arabia and Syria. This is a small, most often copper, vessel with a narrow neck, a short nose and a thick bottom, having a lid and a straight, long handle. The shape remotely resembles a kettle.
The existing market for coffee makers and coffee machines offers a huge number of different models and types for every taste, even the most sophisticated one. The choice depends on the preferences of the coffee lover: the desired strength, quantity, favorite recipe, etc. Having made a purchase, taking into account all the pros and cons, you can become the owner of a device that can deliver true pleasure with a cup of a fragrant drink that can charge with vivacity and good mood for the whole day.