One of the most important elements of a washing machine is the engine, without which it cannot work. Therefore, in the event of a malfunction, it is necessary to conduct a complete diagnosis of this electrical component.
In order to quickly fix the breakdown, first of all, it is necessary to determine which motor is in the device.
Important! The washing machine, depending on the manufacturer, has a certain type of engine, which has its own characteristics, so the verification of each model will be significantly different.
There are 3 main types of motor units:
- Direct drive - used in modern automatic machines (LG, some SAMSUNG models). Such a three-phase electric motor is connected to the drum, has a multi-pole collector, a rotor surrounded by permanent magnets, as well as a high level of efficiency, so the price of cars with such an electric motor is high.
- Induction motor It has a simple design, which consists of a starter and a rotor, but the large size and low efficiency make the motor unprofitable, so it is not used in modern machines.
- Electric motor It has many advantages that contribute to its use in modern washing machines (small size of the device, high speed does not affect the operation of the engine). The advanced motor design allows the belts to transmit rotations from the engine to the drum. You can repair all the parts yourself.
Direct or asynchronous motor test
Attention! Direct-drive or asynchronous motors are connected directly to the drum, so they are not intended for home inspection.
Electric motors of these types can produce errors on the device’s display, which detect coil faults, mains interruptions or brush malfunctions. But professional inspection and maintenance of the motor must be carried out by specialists using certain instruments.
Checking the commutator motor
The collector type of motor is the most common in modern cars. It can be easily removed from the casing and checked independently. To do this, the stator and rotor should be combined, as well as applying a voltage of 220 V through an additional ballast (TEN), observing that the resistance and power of the equipment do not exceed 500 watts.
When connected to the mains, the motor starts to rotate, and the autotransformer does not overheat, which means that the motor is operating normally.
To correctly diagnose the engine of a washing machine, it is necessary to remember the most important and frequent breakdowns of the motor department:
- failure of the working system of electric brushes;
- rupture or damage of the stator or rotor winding;
- delamination of lamellas.
Attention! You can determine the deterioration of the brush due to visual inspection, the presence of sparks during engine operation or the appearance of sounds during washing.
Electric brushes can wear out due to an overloaded tank during washing, using maximum revolutions during spin cycle, and also when a motor winding is shorted in turns. For each model of washing machine, there is a certain type of brush that you should buy in a specialized store.
Important! If new brushes are not rubbed in to all parts of the motor department, strong sparks may appear.
Hard brushes will last longer, but excessive hardness can negatively affect the collector and lead to its breakdown.
To identify a short circuit or breakage of the rotor winding, you must have a special device - a multimeter that measures the resistance level between the lamellas (within 20-200 Ohms). In the case of the appearance of the maximum level - this means that a break has occurred. At a low level, a closure has occurred.
When switching the multimeter to the buzzer mode, you can check the rotor closure on the iron package by connecting one end of the device with the rotor iron, and the other should be moved to different lamellas. In this case, the multimeter should not make sounds.
Just like when checking the rotor, a multimeter is also needed here, which should determine the inter-turn closure with the help of a signal emitted when the ends of the wiring are alternately closed.
You must also check the machine for breakdown wiring. To do this, close the multimeter with the housing of the washing machine at one end, and alternately connect the wiring to the other. The appearance of sound indicates that the insulation is broken and the machine can electric shock.
Important! If such problems are found, the right solution would be to buy a new engine, since repairs can be more expensive.
Small plates - lamellas that transmit current through the brushes - are not subject to wear, but when the engine is jammed, they can peel off from the shaft to which they are glued. In case of slight delamination (0.5 mm), a collector groove can be made. To do this, you need a small skin, which you need to sharpen the lamellas well and clean all the space around from the chips.
There may also be a more serious problem, where the lamella wiring breaks from the rotor, then it is necessary to solder the wiring in the right place with a soldering iron.